Quantcast Figure 4-6.--Free gyroscope at the equator viewed from space.
 

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Figure 4-6.--Free gyroscope at the equator viewed from
Figure 4-7.--Free gyroscope at the equator viewed from the
space.
earth's surface.
to as the horizontal earth rate effect. If the gyro
and partly about the vertical axis. The horizontal earth
were started with its axle vertical at one of the
rate causes the gyro to tilt, whereas the vertical earth rate
earth's poles, it would remain in that position and
causes it to turn in azimuth with respect to the earth. The
produce no apparent rotation around its horizontal
magnitude of rotation depends on the latitude of the
axis. Figure 4-7 illustrates the effect of apparent
gyro.
rotation at the equator, as seen over a 24-hour
Apparent rotation is illustrated by placing a
period.
spinning gyroscope with its axle on the meridian
Now assume that the spinning gyroscope, with
its spinning axis horizontal, is moved to the North
Pole (fig. 4-8). To an observer on the earth's surface,
the gyroscope appears to rotate about its vertical
axis. To an observer in space, the gyroscope axle
appears to remain fixed, and the earth appears to
rotate under it. This apparent rotation about the
vertical axis is referred to as vertical earth rate
effect. It is maximum at the poles and zero at the
equtator.
When the gyroscope axle is placed parallel to
the earth's axis at any location on the earth's surface,
the apparent rotation is about the axle of the
gyroscope and cannot be observed. At any point
between the equator and either pole, a gyroscope
whose spinning axis is not parallel to the earth's
spinning axis has an apparent rotation that is a
combination of horizontal earth rate and vertical earth
rate.
The combined earth rate effects at this point make
Figure 4-8.--Apparent rotation of a gyoscope at the North
the gyro appear to rotate partly about the horizontal axis
Pole.
4-5

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