or petroleum jelly), antiseptic preparations, or
If the victim is conscious and not vomiting,
prepare a weak solution of salt (1 teaspoon) and baking
soda (1/2 teaspoon) in a quart of warm water. Allow
the victim to sip the drink slowly. Aspirin is also
effective for the relief of pain.
Treat for shock. Maintain the victim's body heat,
but do not allow the victim to become overheated. If
the victim's hands, feet, or legs are burned, elevate
them higher than the heart.
ELECTRICAL BURNS.-- In electrical shock
cases, burns may have to be ignored temporarily while
the patient is being revived. After the patient is
revived, lightly cover the burn with a dry, preferably
sterile, dressing, treat for shock, and transport the
victim to a medical facility.
CHEMICAL BURNS.-- To treat most chemical
burns, you should begin flushing the area immediately
with large amounts of water. Do not apply the water
too forcefully. If necessary, remove the victim's
clothing, including shoes and socks, while flushing.
Water should not be used for alkali burns caused
by dry lime, unless large amounts of water are
Figure 1-17.--Rule of Nines.
available for rapid and complete flushing. When water
and lime are mixed they create a very corrosive
to further ease breathing. Transport the victim with
substance. Dry lime should be brushed from the skin
facial burns to a medical facility as soon as possible.
Remove all jewelry and similar articles, even from
Isopropyl or rubbing alcohol should be used to
unburned areas, since severe swelling may develop
treat acid burns caused by phenol (carbolic acid).
Phenol is not water soluble; therefore, water should
only be used after first washing with alcohol or if
To relieve pain initially, apply cold compresses to
alcohol is not available.
the affected area or submerge it in cold water. Cold
water not only minimizes pain, but also reduces the
For chemical burns of the eye, flush immediately
burning effects in the deep layers of the skin. Gently
with large amounts of fresh, clean water. Acid burns
pat dry the area with a lint-free cloth or gauze.
should be flushed at least 15 minutes, and alkali burns
for as long as 20 minutes. If the victim cannot open
Cover the burned area with a sterile dressing,
the eyes, hold the eyelids apart so water can flow
clean sheet, or unused plastic bag. Coverings such as
across the eyes. After thorough irrigation, loosely
blankets or other materials with a rough texture should
cover both eyes with a clean dressing.
not be used because lint may contaminate and further
irritate the injured tissue. When hands and feet are
The after care for all chemical burns is similar to
burned, dressings must be applied between the fingers
that for thermal burns. Cover the affected area and get
and toes to prevent skin surfaces from sticking to each
the victim to a medical facility as soon as possible.
RADIATION BURNS.-- For first- and second-
Do not attempt to break blisters, and do not
degree sunburns, treatment is essentially the same as
remove shreds of tissue or adhered particles of charred
for thermal burns. If the burn is not serious and the
clothing. Never apply greasy substances (butter, lard,
victim does not need medical attention, apply