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Abrasions
situation, the immediate administration of
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by a rescuer
Abrasions are made when the skin is rubbed or
using correct procedures greatly increases the chances
scraped off. Rope burns, floor burns, and skinned
of a victim's survival.
knees or elbows are common examples of abrasions.
CPR consists of external heart compression and
There is usually minimal bleeding or oozing of clear
artificial ventilation. The compressions are performed
fluid.
by pressing the chest with the heel of your hands, and
Incisions
the lungs are ventilated either by mouth-to-mouth or
mouth-to-nose techniques. To be effective, CPR must
Incisions, commonly called cuts, are wounds
be started within 4 minutes of the onset of cardiac
made with a sharp instrument, such as a knife, razor,
arrest.
or broken glass. Incisions tend to bleed very freely
because the blood vessels are cut straight across.
Lacerations
CAUTION
Lacerations are wounds that are torn, rather than
CPR should NOT be attempted by a
cut. They have ragged, irregular edges and masses of
rescuer who has NOT been properly trained.
torn tissue underneath. These wounds are usually
Improperly done, CPR can cause serious
made by blunt forces, rather than sharp objects. They
damage to a victim. Therefore, CPR is
are often complicated by crushing of the tissues as
NEVER practiced on a healthy individual.
well.
For training purposes, a training aid is used
instead. To learn CPR, you should take an
Punctures
approved course from a qualified CPR
instructor.
Punctures are caused by objects that penetrate
some distance into the tissues while leaving a
relatively small surface opening. As a rule, small
punctures do not bleed freely; however, large puncture
For additional information on administering CPR,
wounds may cause severe internal bleeding.
refer to Standard First Aid Training Course,
NAVEDTRA 10081-D.
A puncture wound can be classified as penetrating
or perforating. A perforation differs from a
penetration in that it has an exit as well as an entrance
WOUNDS
site.
A wound, or breaking of the skin, is another
For additional information on the treatment of
wounds refer to Standard First Aid Training Course,
problem that could be the result of an electrical shock.
NAVEDTRA 10081-D.
An IC Electrician could accidentally come in contact
with an energized circuit, causing a loss of balance.
BLEEDING
This could result in a minor or serious injury. Because
you could be in a critical situation to save someone's
The first-aid methods that are used to stop serious
life, or even your own, you should know the basics of
bleeding depend upon the application of pressure.
first aid.
Pressure may be applied in three ways: (1) directly to
the wound, (2) at key pressure points throughout the
Wounds are classified according to their general
body, and (3) with a tourniquet.
condition, size, location, how the skin or tissue is
broken, and the agent that caused the wound.
Direct Pressure
When you consider the manner in which the skin
or tissue is broken, there are four general kinds
You should try the direct-pressure method first to
of wounds: abrasions, incisions, lacerations, and
control bleeding. Place a sterile first-aid dressing,
punctures.
when available, directly over the wound. Tie the knot

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